On March 26, 1917, H.M. King Vajiravudh elevated the Civil Service College to the status of a university and named it after his father, King Chulalongkorn. In 1918, H.R.H. the Prince Rangsit of Chainad, the first Director-General of the University Affairs Department in the Ministry of Education, established the Faculty of Arts and Science, along with the faculties of Engineering, Medicine and Political Science.

In its first decade, the Faculty of Arts and Science stressed courses related to Pre-Medicine—Chemistry, Biology and Physics—but also offered courses in English, French and History. In 1928, it started offering a three-year program to grant a secondary-school teaching certificate. For the first two years, students in this program had to take classes required for graduation from the Faculty of Arts, including Thai, Pali, English, French, History, Dhammavipak and Mathematics. Later, German was added to the program. In their third year, students had to fulfil requirements in pedagogy. In 1930, a three-year program in Science was launched. Students in the program took courses in Science during their first two years and complete the requirements in pedagogy in the third year before they could receive a certificate.

A 1933 royal decree divided the Faculty of Arts and Science in two. The Faculty of Arts was then sub- divided into the Division of Arts and the Division of Teachers’ Training. Similarly, the Faculty of Science was sub-divided into the Division of Science and the Division of Teachers’ Training. Later that year, the two faculties merged again and the whole structure was separated into nine divisions, namely, the Documentation Division and Library, Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Mathematics, Thai and the Oriental Languages, Modern Languages, Geography and History and Teachers’ Training.

The recombined Faculty offered a Bachelor’s degree from 1934. The number in the first batch of graduates from the Faculty of Arts and Science was 33. In 1942, a Master’s degree program was established, with two students graduating with an M.A. In 1944.

In 1943, the Faculty of Arts and Science was divided again, with both new faculties run by the same Dean. In 1948, the Faculty of Arts changed its name to the Faculty of Arts and Education and offered Bachelor’s degrees in both Arts and in Education. The Faculty in this time consisted of four divisions—Thai and Oriental Languages, Foreign Languages, Geography and History, and Education.

In 1950, the Faculty of Arts was fully separated from the Faculty of Science, and each was administered separately by its Dean and staff. In 1955, the Division of Library Science was added to the Faculty of Arts, and in 1957, the Division of Education was promoted to become a separate Faculty of Education. In 1961, the Faculty of Arts was restructured into six divisions: Thai, Eastern Languages, English, Western Languages, Geography and History, and Library Science. Two divisions—Philosophy and Dramatic Arts—were founded in 1971 and 1975, respectively. In 1975, Geography was separated from History. All divisions were later given departmental status. The Faculty later added new departments, Linguistics and Comparative Literature.

Currently, the Faculty of Arts consists of eleven departments, namely, Thai, English, History, Geography, Library Science, Philosophy, Dramatic Arts, Eastern Languages, Western Languages, Linguistics and Comparative Literature. It also houses two programs: the Thai program and the BALAC international program. The international program is known by the name of Bachelor of Arts in Language and Culture (BALAC). It was established in 2008 and offers an interdisciplinary approach to the study of foreign languages and Cultural Studies.